instantiating using pseudoclassical style (using .call or .apply)

Constructor functions have two key uses:
1. To generate new instances with common properties (if utilizing the 'new' keyword at call time)
2. To assign new properties to a focal object (without the 'new' keyword)

In the example below, we can use the Flower function to create multiple instances of the Flower object, each with a different color property. To call the constructor:

var rose = new Flower('pink');  
var clover = new Flower('green');  

The outcome of these two lines will result in two new Flower instances being created:

rose = {  
    color: 'pink',
    height: 0
clover = {  
    color: 'green',
    height: 0

To demonstrate the second purpose of Constructor functions, we have added a subclass relationship between Flower and Lotus (that is, Lotus is a subclass of Flower). How did we initialize this subclass relationship, and what is its outcome?

Remember that the second purpose of constructors is to add properties to a focal object. That's what we are doing here. We call the built-in .call or .apply methods of Flower on the instance of Lotus by identifying the instance properly as this.

Passing the Lotus instance into the this, color ) will result in us setting the color and height properties for each Lotus instance. What we've done is make use of the helper-like qualities of the constructor Flower to avoid duplicate code and have all Lotus instances receive a set of common properties.

Example Code:
var Flower = function ( color ) {  
     this.color = color;
     this.height = 0;

Flower.prototype.grow = function ( ) {  

var Lotus = function ( color ) {  
    // this = Object.create(Lotus.prototype); this, color );
    // return this;

Lotus.prototype = Object.create(Flower.prototype);  
Lotus.prototype.constructor = Lotus;

var blueLotus = new Lotus( 'blue' );